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Smoking and cardiovascular disease may explain sex-related differences in mortality

...r men has consistently been found to be lower than women, although the male-to-female mortality ratio has decreased over the last 30 years. It has been thought that this gap in mortality is due to biological differences, which confer greater resilience in women. However, gender as a social construct may tie into societal, cultural, and economic factors that influence mortality, such as one’s occupation, or one’s health lifestyle factors. Since the...

Social vulnerability influences coronavirus disease 2019 outcomes in major cities

...reas of higher social vulnerability (global Moran I, 0.198 to 0.803, P < 0.001 in all cases except confirmed cases in Philadelphia, with P = 0.011). Areas such as the South and West sides of Chicago, the Bronx and Queens in New York City, and North and Northeast Philadelphia had high positivity rates. Furthermore, one standard deviation higher value of the SVI index in Chicago, New York, and Philadelphia was associated with higher positivity (40%,...

#VisualAbstract: Reinfection rates among patients previously testing positive for COVID-19

...on for at least 8 months. Evidence Level Rating: 2 (Good) As of early March 2021, SARS-CoV-2 has infected nearly 120 million individuals worldwide. The subsequent duration of immunity to reinfection is unknown; infection with common seasonal coronavirus does not tend to confer lasting immunity. Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is increasing, but due to shortages, nearly all countries have implemented prioritization schemes. Having a more robust unde...

Interleukin-6 receptor antagonist treatment improves outcomes in COVID-19 patients

...t organ support. Furthermore, IL-6 receptor antagonist treatment improved 90-day survival in the same patient group compared to the control group. The study was not without limitations such as the lack of reporting on long-term outcomes and small sample size in the sarilumab group. This study’s results are significant, and its pragmatic, international design suggests results from this study may be generalized to use Il-6 receptor antagonist treatm...

Ipatasertib plus abiraterone improves survival in PTEN-negative prostate cancer patients compared to abiraterone alone

...randomized, double-blind, phase 3 drug trial enrolled 1101 patients from 200 sites across 26 countries or regions. The eligibility criteria included 18+ years of age, mCRPC, ECOG of 0 or 1 and status defined as untreated asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic. Patients were randomized to receive placebo-abiraterone 1000 mg (n=554) once daily or ipatasertib 400mg-abiraterone 1000mg (n=554) once daily. All patients received 5 mg of prednisolone twice d...

Amoxicillin–clavulanate safer for patients with uncomplicated diverticulitis

...their first diagnostic code for outpatient diverticulitis occurred during 2000-2018 and the last prescription fill for the study antibiotics occurred at least six months before the new diagnosis. Patients were excluded if they were immunocompromised or had a prior diverticulitis-related diagnostic code, a percutaneous drain, or a colectomy for any indication. In one cohort, 106,361 (89.0%) patients filled prescriptions of metronidazole-with-fluoro...

Sacituzumab govitecan increased survival in metastatic triple-negative breast cancer

...ion or death [HR]; 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.52; P < 0.001). Furthermore, sacituzumab govitecan (12.1 months) showed significantly longer overall survival compared to the control group (6.7 months) (HR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.59; P < 0.001). Grade 3 or higher adverse events were higher in sacituzumab govitecan group, which included more neutropenia (sacituzumab govitecan, 51%; chemotherapy, 33%), diarrhea (sacituzumab goviteca...

Cognitive behavioral therapy may improve outcomes in children and adolescents with prolonged grief disorder

...as participant Inventory of Prolonged Grief for Children (IPG-C) score at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI), Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores. Participants included were between 8 and 18 years old, had lost a close relative, and were experiencing distressing/disabling prolonged grief disorder symptoms. Participants with a history of concurren...

Upadacitinib plus topical corticosteroids is safe and effective for moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis

...re randomly assigned 1:1:1 to two treatment groups (Upadacitinib 15 mg [n=300] or 30 mg [n=297] plus topical corticosteroids) or placebo group (placebo plus topical corticosteroids; n=304) for a 16-week treatment period. Treatment was given orally once daily, and patients were assessed for corticosteroid discontinuation as symptoms stabilized. At 16 weeks, a significantly greater proportion of patients in both upadacitinib groups achieved a EASI-7...

High glycemic index diet increased cardiovascular disease and mortality

...pective, observational cohort study that enrolled 137,851 participants in 20 countries. Participants aged 35 to 70 years of age were included in the study. Participants with improbable baseline energy intake were excluded from the study. The primary outcome was a composite of major cardiovascular events consisting of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. The median follow-up time was 9.5 years, and there...

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