1. Coffee consumption was associated with a reduced risk of death from various conditions.
2. The relationship between coffee consumption and reduced mortality did not vary by country.
Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good)
Study Rundown: Recent studies have suggested that coffee consumption—one of the most commonly consumed beverages worldwide—is linked to lower mortality rates. Considering this literature, the authors of the study aimed to examine the relationship between coffee consumption and mortality with respect to different European countries with varying coffee preparation methods. The study has several limitations. First, coffee-drinking habits were only assessed once at baseline; changes in consumption may have occurred during the course of the study follow-up. Additionally, despite controlling for important confounding variables, the authors recognized that the associations might be biased due to residual confounding. Overall, the results of this study indicate that coffee consumption may serve as a protective factor regarding overall mortality.
In-Depth [prospective cohort]: 521 330 patients, from 10 different European countries, were included in this prospective study. The authors calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. In general, an inverse association of coffee drinking with mortality was observed. For example, compared to non-consumers, coffee-drinkers in the highest quartile of coffee consumption had significantly reduced all-cause mortality (men, HR 0.88, 95%CI 0.82 to 0.95, p < 0.001 for trend; women, HR 0.93, 95%CI 0.87 to 0.98, p = 0.009 for trend). Inverse associations between coffee drinkers and several disease-associated mortalities, including digestive disease, circulatory disease, and ovarian cancer mortality, were also observed. The trends did not differ based on country.
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