Tag: Antibiotic prophylaxis

Patients that use clean intermittent self-catheterization (CISC) are at an increased risk of repeated symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs). While the prevention of UTIs with continuous antibiotic prophylaxis in this patient population has been previously studied, results have been inconsistent. In this randomized controlled trial, 404 community-dwelling users of...
1. Women receiving cefazolin and azithromycin before cesarean section skin incision were less likely to develop endometritis than those receiving only cefazolin after cord clamping. 2. Cefazolin dosing by BMI did not impact the incidence of endometritis. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good)            Study Rundown: Endometritis, or infection of the decidua, is a...
1. In cirrhotic patients who presented with gastrointestinal bleeding, patients treated with ceftriaxone were significantly less likely to develop proved or possible infections when compared to those treated with norfloxacin. 2. The ceftriaxone group was also significantly less likely to developed proved infections or spontaneous bacteremia and bacterial peritonitis. 3. There...
1. Overall, antibiotic prophylaxis following term or near-term premature rupture of membranes was not associated with maternal or neonatal benefit. 2. In women with latency >12 hours from rupture of membranes to delivery, prophylactic antibiotics were associated with a significantly decreased rate of maternal infection. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent)   Study...
1. About 50% of hospitalized individuals in the United States received antibiotics in 2011. 2. Vancomycin was the most commonly used antibiotic for community and hospital acquired infections in critical care and non-critical care settings in the United States in 2011. Evidence Rating Level: 4 (Below Average) Study Rundown: Antibiotics have saved...
Classics Series, Landmark Trials in Medicine
Image: PD 1. During the 1990-1998 study period, which included the 1996 initiation of national Group B Streptococcus guidelines, a significant, 65% decrease in early-onset neonatal disease was observed. 2. During the study’s final year, an estimated 3900 early-onset neonatal GBS cases along with 200 early- and late-onset neonatal deaths were...
Image: PD 1. This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial demonstrated an 84% reduction in the incidence of pneumococcal septicemia among patients with sickle cell taking prophylactic penicillin when compared to those taking placebo. 2. Fifteen severe, Streptococcus pneumoniae-related infections occurred during the study with 13 occurring in patients taking placebo, 3 of...
Classics Series, Landmark Trials in Medicine
Image: PD 1. Among children recruited following febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) and randomized to receive either antibiotics or no medication, no significant difference in UTI recurrence was noted between groups. 2. Male children and those with grade III vesicoureteral reflex had significant reductions in subsequent UTIs if treated with prophylactic...
Image: PD 1. The overall risk of infection associated with brain and spine angiography as well as endovascular neurointervention is small. 2. Antibiotic prophylaxis should not be used routinely for these procedures. This study demonstrates a very low infection rate with diagnostic and interventional neuroangiography in the setting of no antibiotic prophylaxis....