Tag: Alcohol

1. The National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) 2-question screen showed high predictive validity in identifying adolescents at risk for developing alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Study Rundown: Employment of early screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a well-known and effective strategy among adolescents to prevent...
Individuals that drive while under the influence of alcohol are at an increased risk of being involved in traffic accidents, contributing to the morbidity and mortality of the individual and others. In this observational natural experiment in Scotland, the effects of lowering the legal driving limit from a blood...
An Evaluation of the Effects of Lowering Blood Alcohol Concentration Limits for Drivers on the Rates of Road Traffic Accidents and Alcohol Consumption: A Natural Experiment Individuals that drive while under the influence of alcohol are at an increased risk of being involved in traffic accidents, contributing to the morbidity...
1. Five trajectories of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) were described and compared; greater PAE was associated with reduced birth weight and length, as well as lower neurodevelopmental scores at 6- and 12-month follow-up. 2. Low-to-moderate sustained alcohol exposure had persistent, larger deficits compared with early moderate-to-high exposure with reduction early...
1. Current, frequent binge drinking was linked to lower levels of the ovarian aging marker anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in reproductive-age African-American women. 2. A range of other drinking and smoking patterns were not associated with AMH levels. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Study Rundown: Excessive alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are common...
1. After controlling for multiple factors, parental perception of whether their child engages with substance-using peers, ease-of-access to alcohol in the home, and lenient alcohol specific rules are associated with increased parental supply of alcohol sips to their adolescents. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: It is common for parents...
Targeting BCL2 with Venetoclax in Relapsed Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia BCL2 is an anti-apoptotic protein that allows chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to survive and a promising pharmacologic target for relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Previously, drugs like navitoclax showed efficacy to the same target but cross-reacted with other proteins and caused thrombocytopenia....
1. From a randomized controlled trial, red wine usage among adults with type 2 diabetes increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein while decreasing total cholesterol-HDL-C ratio. 2. Slow ethanol metabolizers experienced better glycemic control from red and white wine. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: Moderate alcohol intake has been linked...
  1. In women who drank light to moderate amounts of alcohol, there was an increased incidence of alcohol-related cancers; an effect that was driven mainly an increased risk for breast cancer. 2. Men who were light to moderate alcohol drinkers did not have an increased risk of alcohol-related cancers...
Classics Series, Landmark Trials in Medicine
1. Compared to placebo, treating patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis with 28 days of prednisolone significantly improved the short-term survival up to 6 months. 2. There remains significant controversy surrounding the use of glucocorticoids in managing severe alcoholic hepatitis, as numerous other trials have demonstrated no mortality benefit, but significantly...