Tag: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

1. Clinical characteristics of HIV-infected individuals appear to be similar to that of the general population and as such should have a similar treatment approach applied. Evidence Rating: 2 (Good) Despite there being a significant population of infected individuals, the relationship between HIV and COVID-19 was poorly characterized. Specifically, it was...
Mortality and pulmonary complications in patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection: an international cohort study 1. In patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection within 7 days before or 30 days after surgery, significant mortality was observed, and perioperative pulmonary complications occurred in more than half the patients. Evidence Rating: 2 (Good) Current...
1.  Chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy may provoke significant declines in CD4 counts in HIV patients as compared to other treatments, which in turn are associated with increased mortality. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Treating cancer in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection can be problematic due to the immunosuppressive effects of certain...
1. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections significantly contribute to the global burden of sexually-acquired HIV infections. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) There is a known strong biological association between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition, transmissibility, and disease severity. This analysis provides the...
Obeticholic acid for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: interim analysis from a multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial 1. Obeticholic acid, a farnesoid X receptor agonist, prompts fibrosis improvement in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an increasingly common cause of chronic liver disease...
1. For previously untreated HIV-1 patients in Cameroon, treatment with dolutegravir was noninferior to low dose efavirenz at lowering viral load over a period of 48 weeks. 2. Weight gain occurred in both groups but was more evident in the dolutegravir treated patients. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent)   Study Rundown: For...
Previous studies have suggested that certain hormonal contraceptive methods, including intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM), may increase women’s susceptibility to HIV acquisition. In this randomized, open-label trial, 7829 women living in areas of high HIV incidence in Africa were randomly assigned to receive DMPA-IM (n=2609), a copper intrauterine device...
Suicide in older adults living in or transitioning to residential long-term care, 2003 to 2015 It is estimated that by the year 2050, 1 in 5 individuals will be 65 years or older. In addition to the growing number of seniors in North America, the rate of suicide has also...
Immunotherapies such as anti-PD-1 (anti-programmed cell death 1) and anti-PD-L1 (anti-programmed cell death ligand 1) are effective in treating numerous malignancies. The safety and efficacy in patients who have both cancer and HIV, however, has not been well studied. In this non-randomized open-label trial, investigators treated 30 participants with...
The safety and immunogenicity of two novel live attenuated monovalent (serotype 2) oral poliovirus vaccines in healthy adults: a double-blind, single-centre phase 1 study Oral live-attenuated polio vaccines (OPV) and injected inactivated polio vaccines IPV) have helped eradicate wild polioviruses. However, there is still a need to develop new vaccines...