Tag: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Previous studies have suggested that certain hormonal contraceptive methods, including intramuscular depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-IM), may increase women’s susceptibility to HIV acquisition. In this randomized, open-label trial, 7829 women living in areas of high HIV incidence in Africa were randomly assigned to receive DMPA-IM (n=2609), a copper intrauterine device...
Suicide in older adults living in or transitioning to residential long-term care, 2003 to 2015 It is estimated that by the year 2050, 1 in 5 individuals will be 65 years or older. In addition to the growing number of seniors in North America, the rate of suicide has also...
Immunotherapies such as anti-PD-1 (anti-programmed cell death 1) and anti-PD-L1 (anti-programmed cell death ligand 1) are effective in treating numerous malignancies. The safety and efficacy in patients who have both cancer and HIV, however, has not been well studied. In this non-randomized open-label trial, investigators treated 30 participants with...
The safety and immunogenicity of two novel live attenuated monovalent (serotype 2) oral poliovirus vaccines in healthy adults: a double-blind, single-centre phase 1 study Oral live-attenuated polio vaccines (OPV) and injected inactivated polio vaccines IPV) have helped eradicate wild polioviruses. However, there is still a need to develop new vaccines...
Early evidence has suggested a strong association between HIV viral load and the risk of transmission to an HIV-negative partner, as well as a significant reduction in transmission rates with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression among HIV-positive partners. Previous studies have largely examined HIV transmission rates...
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a rapidly increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in patients affected by HIV. However, the impact of HIV infection on HCC prognosis is unclear. Previous studies have provided both null results and evidence of association between HIV and HCC prognosis, but have been characterized by...
1. No baseline differences observed between patients exposed to efavirenz and nevirapine compared to those never exposed, regarding both depression and suicide. 2. No significant associations found between efavirenz and suicidal ideation in persons living with HIV in Uganda. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Study Rundown: The authors of this study examined...
1. Pairwise comparisons of tenofovir-emtricitabine and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (TDF-FTC-LPV/r), zidovudine-lamivudine and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (ZDV-3TC-LPV/r), and tenofovir-emtricitabine and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (TDF-FTC-ATV/r) HIV regimens among pregnant women with HIV showed all three regimens had comparable risks of preterm birth, low birth weight, and neonatal death. 2. There was a higher risk of...
1. Overall HIV incidence in the United States has decreased in all high-risk transmission groups except for minority men who have sex with men (MSM). 2. Using a CD4 depletion model, higher levels of undiagnosed HIV infections were observed among minority MSM ethnic groups compared to white and older MSM. Evidence...
1. Treatment of cryptococcal meningitis with two weeks of flucytosine and fluconazole was noninferior to two weeks of amphotericin B. 2. Addition of flucytosine to amphotericin B was superior to amphotericin B plus fluconazole. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: Cryptococcal meningitis accounts for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality...