Tag: human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

1. Children less than 8 years old infected with HIV and children who were HIV exposed-but-uninfected had poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to unexposed children. 2. Those children who were either HIV-infected or exposed-but-uninfected who also had anti-retroviral exposure may have lower neuropsychological function than those without anti-retroviral exposure. Evidence Rating Level:...
1. One third of HIV patients in the United States (U.S.) remain unvaccinated against hepatitis B. 2. Of HIV patients who were candidates for hepatitis B vaccination, only 1 in 10 were vaccinated within 1 year of continuing care for HIV. Evidence Rating Level: 3 (Average) Study Rundown: In comparison to the...
1. Reducing U.S. foreign aid could produce severe negative clinical and epidemiological effects while saving only $900 or $600 to $900 per year of life lost in the Republic of South Africa (RSA) and Côte d’Ivoire (CI), respectively. 2. Eventually, any cost savings would be negated by the accruing costs...
1. Maraviroc pre-exposure prophylaxis regimens were observed to be safe and well tolerated in patients. 2. No new HIV infections occurred during the course of the 48-week study. Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: HIV prevention is an important area of public health, as over 2 million new HIV infections occur...
1. In an observational study across hospitals in Botswana, women with HIV infection had higher rates of adverse birth outcomes than uninfected women. Women who were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) from conception onward had worse birth outcomes than those that started ART after conception. 2. The tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine,...
1. Next-generation metagenomics detected Human Hepegivirus-1 (HhpgV-1) in a cohort of patients who inject drugs. 2. The clinical significance of detecting HHpgB-1 infection is currently unclear. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Study Rundown: Next-generation metagenomic sequencing (NGMS) is a technique that involves the sequencing of all the DNA or RNA in a tissue,...
1. This cluster randomized control trial found that implementing community-based testing and treatment program in East Rural Africa significantly increased the proportion of HIV-positive individuals who were virally suppressed after two years, compared to baseline. 2. Age and sex disparities were obvious at baseline, and remained after 2 years of...
1. Based on this prospective cohort study, targeting HIV screening at high-risk youths performed better than the current standard of universal screening. 2. Individuals who tested negative for HIV infection were more likely to be connected with HIV-prevention programs if engaged through targeted strategies rather than universal screening. Evidence Rating Level:...
1. In a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of sexually active women in sub-Saharan Africa, dapivirine-containing vaginal rings were linked with a significantly reduced incidence of HIV-1 infection in women over the age of 21. 2. The protective effects of the dapivirine-containing vaginal rings were not seen in the younger group, aged...
1. Rates of HIV transmission were significantly lower for two combined antiretroviral therapies (ART) compared to single drug zidovudine prophylaxis. 2. Combined ART was associated with higher rates of maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes compared to single drug treatment. Evidence Rating: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: Pregnant women with HIV are treated with...