Tag: oncology

Image: PD 1. Men with localized, non-metastatic prostate cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy demonstrated lower mortality rates compared to treatment with radiotherapy. 2. No treatment advantage between radical prostatectomy versus radiotherapy was observed in metastatic prostate cancer patients. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Study Rundown: Current mainstay treatment for prostate cancer is surgery...
Image: PD 1. Pleural effusions were associated with worse survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), particularly when they arose in early stage disease. Evidence rating level: 2 (Good) Study Rundown: Malignant pleural effusion containing malignant cells helps to define metastatic staging of lung cancer; however, diagnostic thoracentesis and pleural biopsy are not...
Image: PD 1. A 5 year mammography screening program did not result in a difference in mortality compared to breast examination alone/usual care in women 40-59. 2. 22% of all mammography-detected invasive cancers were considered to be over-diagnoses. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Study Rundown: The use of mammography is a mainstay in...
Image: PD 1. Post-operative radiation therapy is associated with significantly reduced risk for local recurrence of breast cancer in the first 5 years after primary treatment. 2. Data suggests that radiotherapy offers no additional protective effect after 5 years of follow-up. Evidence rating level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: Post-operative radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery...
 Image: PD 1. Compared to men, women who smoked between 1-14 cigarettes per day were at higher risk of developing negative complications. 2. Differences in risk between men and women disappeared as smoking exposure increased. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Study Rundown: This study investigated differences in the effects of smoking exposure in...
Image: PD 1. Palliative operative intervention to relieve metastatic bowel obstruction can result in symptom relief, resumption of eating and home discharge. 2. Surgery under these circumstances has a high rate of mortality, complication rates and reobstruction. Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) Study Rundown: This systematic review examined the effect of palliative surgery...
Image: PD 1. Compared to patients receiving surgery alone, patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy (CRT) prior to resection experience reduced local recurrence, peritoneal carcinomatosis and hematogenous spread. 2. Local recurrence was particularly reduced within radiation target volumes. Evidence rating level: 2 (Good) Study Rundown: Though patients with esophageal cancer commonly present with distant metastasis...
Image: PD 1. As a first-line treatment, afatinib shows increased progression-free survival as compared to cisplatin plus gemcitabine in Asian patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer.   2. Afatinib-treated patients had more diarrhea and rash but less nausea and vomiting compared to cisplatin plus gemcitabine-treated patients.   Evidence Rating: 2 (Good) Study...
Image: PD Sisyphus 1. Patients with previously platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer showed no increase in progression-free survival or overall survival when randomized to two years Erlotinib treatment as compared to observation. 2. Post-hoc stratification of patient subgroups by age, stage, type of first-line chemotherapy, and response type to chemotherapy...
Image: PD 1. Adding angiogenesis-targeted sunitinib therapy to prednisone in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) does significantly improves progression-free survival, but not overall survival. 2. The potential uses of anti-angiogenic therapy in this setting requires further investigation. Evidence rating level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: The standard approach to managing metastatic,...