Tag: autism

Image: PD  1. The risk of autism spectrum disorders has been linked to both environmental and genetic influences.  2. In this study cohort, genetic predisposition accounted for 50% of the risk of autism spectrum disorders.  Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent)   Study Rundown: While approximately 1% of children born in the United States exhibit...
Image: PD 1. Mothers’ prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use was linked to an increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in male children. 2. The risk of ASD was highest among those mothers who used SSRIs in the first trimester.  Evidence Rating Level: 3 (Average) Study Rundown: SSRIs can cross the...
Image: PD  1. Neuronal disorganization and abnormal laminar cytoarchitecture were identified in prefrontal and temporal cortices of children with autism.  2. These abnormalities, as detected by colorimetric RNA in-situ hybridization, were highly heterogeneous with respect to the layers and the cell types affected.  Study Rundown: Autism typically manifests in early childhood as...
Image: PD  1. Children born to older fathers were more likely to develop adverse psychiatric and academic outcomes, including ADHD, autism, and psychosis, compared with their younger siblings.  2. The magnitude of the risk was dose-dependent with increasing paternal age.   Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent)      Study Rundown: In this population based...
Classics Series, Landmark Trials in Medicine
Image: PD 1. Among children born in Denmark during a 7-year study period, no increase in risk of developing autism was seen in those who were vaccinated against measles, mumps, and rubella relative to unvaccinated children. Original Date of Publication: November 2002 Study Rundown: As the incidence of autism increased in the...
Image: PD 1. The Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers Revised with Follow-Up (M-CHAT-R/F) is an effective and reliable test for detecting autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that requires little time and cost to administer.  2. The M-CHAT-R/F detected ASD at a significantly higher rate than the M-CHAT and allowed for ASD...
Image: PD In this section, we will highlight the key high-impact studies, updates, and analyses published in medicine during the past week. Three vs Twelve Months of Dual Antiplatelet Therapy After Zotarolimus-Eluting Stents: The OPTIMIZE Trial Studies ascertaining the optimal length of antiplatelet therapy after placement of drug-eluting stents have provided mixed...
Image: PD 1. Serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) during pregnancy did not increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder in offspring.    Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good)  Study Rundown: Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that has been shown to influence neural development in animal studies. A recent small case-control study demonstrated that serotonin...
Image: PD 1. Intranasal oxytocin in individuals with autism spectrum disorder was associated with quicker and more frequent judgments based on communicated nonverbal information.  2. The increase in nonverbal information-based judgments was mediated by increased brain activity and functional coordination in the medial prefrontal cortex. Evidence Rating: 1 (Excellent)  Study Rundown: Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often...
Image: PD  1. Overall, the recurrence risk was 6.9% among the sibling cohorts affected with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs).  2. Siblings of an affected older child were 7 times more likely to have an autism spectrum disorder.  Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good)            Study Rundown: Over the last two...