Tag: AIDS

In this section, we highlight the key high-impact studies, updates, and analyses published in medicine during the past week.  Spread of Artemisinin Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Since 2005, the World Health Organization has recommended the use of artemisinin-based combination therapies as the first line treatment for P. falciparum malaria in...
1. Economic incentives in the form of food vouchers covering the value of transportation, plus at least 1-2 days of lost work wages, was effective in increasing male circumcision rates in Kenya.  2. This intervention was effective in increasing rates of circumcision among individuals at high risk of acquiring HIV.  Evidence...
1. A 12 to 24 week regimen of sofosbuvir and ribavirin induced a sustained viral response in hepatitis C (HCV) patients co-infected with HIV.  2. No significant adverse effects from sofosbuvir were observed during this phase 3 trial.  Evidence Rating Level:  2 (Good)            Study Rundown: Until recently,...
1. Among adults who underwent HIV self-testing in Malawi, offering home initiation of care increased anti-retroviral therapy initiation compared to standard HIV care. 2. Combined across both study groups, 72.5% of ART initiators were still taking ART six months after diagnosis. Evidence Rating Level:  1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: Testing for HIV and...
1. In this case study, two patients with chronic HIV infection who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplant achieved HIV remission for several weeks after their antiretroviral therapy was stopped. 2. However, both patients subsequently experienced viral rebound associated with the acute retroviral syndrome. Evidence Rating Level: 4 (Below average)  Study Rundown: Latent...
In this section, we highlight the key high-impact studies, updates, and analyses published in medicine during the past week. Effects of Extended-Release Niacin with Laropiprant in High-Risk Patients Despite lack of evidence of overall benefit, niacin has been increasingly used to help lower LDL cholesterol and raise HDL cholesterol, modifiable risk...
1. The rate of death among HIV-positive individuals treated with antiretroviral therapy decreased from 1999-2011. The leading causes of death were due to AIDS-related causes, non-AIDS-defining cancers, liver disease, and cardiovascular disease.  2. The percentage of all deaths due to AIDS-related causes, cardiovascular disease, and liver disease decreased from 1999-2000...
1. This study demonstrated that second-line antiretroviral therapy consisting of a protease inhibitor with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors was efficacious in achieving good HIV control.  2. There were no significant differences in the rates of adverse events when compared with other regimens that do not include nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors.  Evidence Rating...
1. Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir alone or in combination with emtricitabine in heterosexual individuals in high-risk populations was associated with a reduced risk of acquiring herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2).  Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent) Study Rundown: PrEP with tenofovir with or without emtricitabine has been associated with protection...
1. Treatment with efavirenz in HIV patients was associated with an increased risk of suicidality.  Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good)                 Study Rundown: Efavirenz is a common non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRT-I) used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).  The drug has been...