1. Based on a randomized, controlled trial, acute ingestion of caffeine was not pro-arrhythmogenic in chronic systolic heart failure patients during the physical stress of a treadmill test.
2. Increased plasma levels of caffeine also did not increase the risk of arrhythmias in these patients.
Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent)
1. In a randomized control trial, caffeine administration was associated with greater cardiovascular effects in post-pubertal boys than girls.
2. Among postpubertal females, there was a significant interaction between the menstrual cycle phase and the effect of caffeine on heart rate and blood pressure.
Evidence Rating Level: 2 (Good) ...
1. Among individuals 2-22 years of age, dietary recall from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to assess caffeine intake showed mean caffeine intake among children and adolescents has remained steady in the past decade.
2. Soda was found to be the main source of caffeine for children...