1. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, it was found that smartphone overuse was associated with more than a two-fold increased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality among the general population.
2. Furthermore, dose response analysis showed that as smartphone usage time increases, sleep quality is proportionally worse.
Evidence Rating Level: 1 (Excellent)
Excessive smartphone use has become a common issue in our society and has been linked with poor sleep quality. Smartphone use negatively impacts sleep quality through suppressed melatonin secretion from bright light, electromagnetic field exposure, and smartphone content, such as music and violent media. Although many studies have investigated the link between smartphone usage and sleep quality, no systematic review to date has synthesized the current literature. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to comprehensively analyze the association between smartphone usage time and self-reported sleep quality.
Of 703 records identified from databases between 2010 to 2022, 17 observational studies (n = 36,485 participants) were included. Studies were included if they assessed smartphone overuse and its impact on sleep quality in the general population. Studies were excluded if there was a lack of data, or if they were not published in English. The present systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines and assessed risk of bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Restricted cubic spline analysis was used for dose-response analysis. The primary outcome was the impact of smartphone usage on sleep quality.
The results showed that smartphone overuse was associated with more than a two-fold increased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality among individuals, who were mostly students. The dose-response analysis demonstrated that as hours of smartphone use increases, the self-reported sleep quality worsens proportionally. A limitation of the study was that potential confounders such as sex, body mass index, and socioeconomic status were not statistically adjusted for. Nonetheless, the systematic review underlined the impact of smartphone usage on negatively impacting sleep quality.
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